Faculty Profile



Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences (CAOS)

Indian Institute of Science
Bangalore 560012

Email : vinay@iisc.ac.in
Phone : +91-80-2293 3065

Google Scholar page

BoBBLE: Bay of Bengal Boundary Layer Experiment
(A joint project of MoES, India and NERC UK)

The Bay of Bengal (BoB) plays a fundamental role in controlling the weather systems that make up the South Asian summer monsoon system. In particular, the southern BoB has cooler sea surface temperature (SST) that influence ocean‐atmosphere interaction and impact on the monsoon. Compared to the southeast, the southwestern BoB is cooler, more saline, receives much less rain, and is influenced by the Summer Monsoon Current (SMC). To examine the impact of these features on the monsoon, the BoB Boundary Layer Experiment (BoBBLE) was jointly undertaken by India and the UK during June ‐ July 2016. Physical and bio-geochemical observations were made using a CTD, five ocean gliders, a uCTD, a VMP, two ADCPs, Argo floats, drifting buoys, meteorological sensors and upper air radiosonde balloons. The observations were made along a zonal section at 8°N between 85.3°E and 89°E with a 10-day time series at 89°E, 8°N. This paper presents the new observed features of the southern BoB from the BoBBLE field program, supported by satellite data. Key results from the BoBBLE field campaign show the Sri Lanka Dome and the SMC in different stages of their seasonal evolution and two freshening events during which salinity decreased in the upper layer leading to the formation of thick barrier layers. BoBBLE observations were taken during a suppressed phase of the intraseasonal oscillation; they captured in detail the warming of the ocean mixed layer and preconditioning of the atmosphere to convection.

Also Read

  • How a group of 24 scientists overcame all "barriers" to infer the existence of "Barrier Layer" in Bay of Bengal...
  • Click to know about the most successful cruise that was a mix of anxiety, emergency, unfavourable weather conditions, risky and finally creating history..
    An unusually successful cruise

    Recent Research Highlights

    Structure of under currents in BoB
    Summer monsoon of 2019
    Barrier Layer formation in BoB
    Impact of rain and river water forcing on BoB
    Dynamics of SMC in Sri Lanka
    Synergies in Operational Oceanography

    Latest Activities


    Invited Talks

    1. BoBBLE observations in the southern Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon, 15 February 2019, SIBER, SSC, Port Elizabeth, South Africa
    2. Encounters with a fascinating bay, 1 March 2019, RCPNS 2019, Chandigarh.
    3. Climate of the Bay of Bengal, Workshop on Climate Change, 6-7, December 2018, DCCC, IISc.
    4. Arabian Sea Warm Pool and the monsooon onset vortex, Indo-US workshop, 25-26 February, Hyderabad.
    5. "Monitoring the Oceans- World Oceans Day Lecture" 8 June 2018, Karnataka Science & Technology Academy (KSTA).
    6. P N Vinayachandran, BoBBLE(Bay of Bengal Boundary Layer Experiment): Exploring the ocean-atmosphere system in the southern Bay of Bengal during the summer monsoon, Key note talk. IAPSO-IAMAS-IAGA Joint Assembly to be held at Cape Town during 27th August to 01st September, 2017
    7. "An overview of the southern Bay of Bengal cold pool" at The national symposium on "Impact of Climate change : Successes and Challenges on Ocean and Atmospheric Research" (SCOAR 2014) , 09th -11th October 2014, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam.
    8. " A summer monsoon salt pump in the Bay of Bengal", National Workshop on Characteristics of Monsoon-Factors responsible for contrasting features, 11-12 December, 2014. CUSAT, Kochi
    9. Intraseasonal variations of Bay of Bengal sea surface temperature, "International symposium on climate variations", University of Tokyo, 11-13 April 2012.
    10. Invited Talk "Bay of Bengal without its Freshwater", Workshop on Sundarbans: The Bhatirdesh and its Science, Mar 27, 2012, Kolkata.
    11. Sensitivity of intraseasonal forcing to freshwater forcing, Workshop on physical processes in the Bay of Bengal and monsoon ISO, 5-7 March 2012, Bangalore.
    12. Invited Talk "Salinity effects on Intraseasonal Ossicilations", International Workshop on Bay of Bengal processes and Monsoons, Mar 5-7, 2012, IISc, Bangalore.
    13. Invited Lecture "River discharge and ocean circulation", Sao Paulo School on Global Climate Modeling, October 3-14, 2011, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    14. Invited Science Talk "Physical Processes relevant to Bay of Bengal Biology", 2nd scientific steering committee meeting, July 26-28, 2011, Chennai, India.
    15. "Progress and prospects in Indian Ocean modeling", International Conference on Meta Computing, 16-17 December 2010, Goa, India.
    16. "High resolution Indian Ocean modeling applications", Workshop of Modeling of Oceanic and Atmospheric Processes, Sultan Qaboos Univeristy, Oman, March 2010.
    17. "Indian Ocean Dipole: Processes and Impacts" at "Young Scientists of Asia Conclave, Pressing Problems of Humankind: Energy & Climate", A conference of Concerned Young Scientists, TWAS, Bangalore, 15-17 January, 2009.
    18. "Indian Ocean Dipole" 96th Indian Science Congress 2009, Northeastern Hill University, Shillong, 3-7 January, 2009.
    19. "Modeling of the Indian Ocean: Bay of Bengal fresh water plume and the Arabian Sea mini warm pool", The 12th Annual Congress on Fluid Mechanics, 18-21 August, 2008, Daejon, Koera.
    20. "Oceanic processes associated with the 2006 Indian Ocean Dipole", Asia Oceania Geosciences Society 2008, 16-20 June, 2008, Busan, Korea.
    21. "The 2006 Indian Ocean Dipole and its possible influence on the circulation over Maritime Continent", International Seminar on Climate Variability, Change and Extreme Weather Events", 26-27 February, 2008, National University, Malaysia.
    22. "Oceanic processes associated with the 2006 Indian Ocean Dipole" IUGG XXIV General Assembly", Session JPS001, 2-13 July, 2007, Perugia, Italy.
    23. "Modeling Indian Ocean circulation", Celebrating the Monsoons, Indian Institute of Science, 24-27 July, 2007, Bangalore, India.
    24. "Association between Indonesian Rainfall and the Indian Ocean Dipole", International Round Table on Understanding and Prediction of Summer and Winter Monsoons, 21-24 November 2005, Jakarta, Indonesia.
    25. "Numerical modeling of circulation and chlorophyll distribution in the Bay of Bengal", National Workshop on Oceanographic Feature of the Indian Coastal Waters, Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory, 6-7 October 2005, Kochi, India.
    26. "Thermal domes in the Bay of Bengal: Physics, phytoplankton blooms and implications", IUGG XXIII General Assembly, 30 June to 11 July, 2003, Sapporo, Japan.
    27. "Ocean dynamics during dipole events in an OGCM", Invited presentation, Symposium on the ocean-atmosphere coupled dynamics in the Indian Ocean, 17–21 December, 2001, Tokyo, Japan.
    28. "Pathways of freshwater outflow from the Bay of Bengal", Invited presentation, WOCE Indian Ocean meeting, 19 May 1999, Miami, USA.
    29. "Decadal and interdecadal climate events and their impacts on the ocean circulation in the Indo-Pacific sector", Science of Climate '99, 21 January 1999, La Jolla, USA.



    Project Staff

    Technical Assistant

    Past Students

    List of Publications

    1. P.N.Vinayachandran Fraser Davidson and Eric P. Chassignet (2019),"Towards joint assessments, modern capabilities and new links for ocean prediction systems", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.
    2. DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0276.1

    3. Francis A. Pavanathara, Jithin Abraham, Abhisek Chatterjee, A.Mukherjee, D.Shankar P.N.Vinayachandran and S.S.V.S Ramakrishna (2019),"Structure and dynamics of undercurrents in the western boundary current of the Bay of Bengal", Ocean Dynamics.
    4. DOI:10.1007/s10236-019-01340-9

    5. Sulochana Gadgil,P.A.Francis and P.N.Vinayachandran (2019),"Summer Monsoon of 2019:Understanding the Performance So Far and Speculating about the Rest of the Season", Currenct ScienceVol 117, No 5
    6. DOI: 10.18520/cs/v117/i5/783-793

    7. Subham Rath, P.N.Vinayachandran , Ambica Behara and Neema CP (2019),"Dynamics of summer monsoon current around Sri Lanka", Ocean Dynamics.
    8. DOI: 10.1007/s10236-019-01295-x

    9. Davidson F, Alvera-Azcárate A,Barth A, Brassington GB, ChassignetEP, Clementi E, De Mey-Frémaux P,Divakaran P, Harris C, Hernandez F,Hogan P, Hole LR, Holt J, Liu G, Lu Y,Lorente P, Maksymczuk J, Martin M,Mehra A, Melsom A, Mo H, Moore A,Oddo P, Pascual A, Pequignet A-C,Kourafalou V, Ryan A, Siddorn J,Smith G, Spindler D, Spindler T,Stanev EV, Staneva J, Storto A,Tanajura C, P.N.Vinayachandran Wan L, Wang H, Zhang Y, Zhu X and Zu Z (2019),"Synergies in Operational Oceanography: The Intrinsic Need for Sustained Ocean Observations.", Front. Mar. Sci , 6:450.
    10. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00450

    11. Behara. A, P.N.Vinayachandran , and Shankar D (2019),"Influence of rainfall over eastern Arabian Sea on its salinity", Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans , 124.
    12. DOI: 10.1029/2019JC014999

    13. Jenson V George, P.N.Vinayachandran , V.Vijith, V.Thushara, Anoop A. Nayak, Shrikant M. Pargaonkar, P.Amol, K.Vijaykumar and Addrian J.Mathews (2019), "Mechanisms of Barrier Layer Formation and Erosion from In Situ Observations in the Bay of Bengal", Journal of Physical Oceanography, Volume 49.
    14. DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-18-0204.1

    15. P.Amol, P.N.Vinayachandran , D.Shankar, V.Thushara, V.Vijith, Abhisek Chatterjee and A.Kankonkar (2019), "Effect of freshwater advection and winds on the vertical structure of chlorophyll in the northern Bay of Bengal" Deep Sea Research Part II- Topical studies in Oceanography. DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2019.07.010

    16. P.N.Vinayachandran Umasankar Das, D.Shankar, S.Jahfer, Ambica Behara, T.M.Balakrishnan Nair and G.S.Bhat (2019), "Maintenance of Southern Bay of Bengal cold pool" Part II- Topical studies in Oceanography.DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2019.07.012

    17. Alejandra Sanchez-Franks , Brian King , Benjamin Webber, Adrian Matthews , Peter Sheehan , Ambica Behara , Cp Neema , Aswathi Das , and P N Vinayachandran (2019),"The railroad switch effect of seasonally reversing currents on the Bay of Bengal High Salinity Core" ,Geophysical Research Abstracts , Vol. 21.
    18. DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082208

    19. Mahajan, AS and Tinel, L and Sarkar, A and Chance, R and Carpenter, LJ and Hulswar, S and Mali, P and Prakash, S and P N Vinayachandran (2019) "Understanding Iodine Chemistry Over the Northern and Equatorial Indian Ocean" ,Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol 124 (14). pp. 8104-8118.
    20. DOI: 10.1029/2018JD029063

    21. R.Jyothibabu, N.Arun Pandi, L. Jagadeesan, C.Kannan, K.R.Lallu and P N Vinayachandran (2019)"Response of phytoplankton to heavy cloud cover and turbidity in the northern Bay of Bengal", Scientific reports ,Article number:11282.
    22. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-29586-1

    23. Sanchez-Franks, Alejandra Kent, Elizabeth Matthews, Adrian J. Webber, Benjamin G. M. Peatman, Simon C P N Vinayachandran (2018), "Intraseasonal variability of air-sea fluxes over the Bay of Bengal during the Southwest Monsoon" ,Journal of Climate Vol 31 (17). pp 7087-7109.
    24. DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0652.1

    25. Benjamin G. M. Webber, Adrian J. Matthews, P N Vinayachandran  ,C. P. Neema, Alejandra Sanchez-Franks, V. Vijith, P. Amol, and Dariusz B. Baranowski (2018), "The Dynamics of the Southwest Monsoon Current in 2016 from High-Resolution In Situ Observations and Models" ,Journal of Physical Oceanography,Vol.48 (10)
    26. DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-17-0215.1

    27. P N Vinayachandran ,Adrian J Matthews, K Vijay Kumar, Alejandra Sanchez-Franks, V Thushara, Jenson George, V Vijith, Benjamin GM Webber, Bastien Y Queste, Rajdeep Roy, Amit Sarkar, Dariusz B Baranowski, GS Bhat, Nicholas P Klingaman, Simon C Peatman, C Parida, Karen J Heywood, Robert Hall, Brian King, Elizabeth C Kent, Anoop A Nayak, CP Neema, P Amol, A Lotliker, A Kankonkar, DG Gracias, S Vernekar, AC D. Souza, G Valluvan, Shrikant M Pargaonkar, K Dinesh, Jack Giddings, Manoj Joshi, (2018) "BoBBLE (Bay of Bengal Boundary Layer Experiment): Ocean–atmosphere interaction and its impact on the South Asian monsoon", Bulletin of American Meteorological Society.
    28. DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0230.1

    29. Patrick Martin, Federico M Lauro, Amit Sarkar, Nathalie Goodkin, Satya Prakash, P N Vinayachandran, (2018) "Particulate polyphosphate and alkaline phosphatase activity across a latitudinal transect in the tropical Indian Ocean" , Limnology and Oceanography.
    30. DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2019.07.010

    31. D. Wall-Palmer, Brett Metcalfe, Melanie J Leng, Hilary J Sloane, Gerald Ganssen, P N Vinayachandran and Christopher W Smart, (2018), " Vertical distribution and diurnal migration of atlantid heteropods", Marine Ecology Progress Series.
    32. DOI: 10.3354/meps12464

    33. Chatterjee A, D. Shankar, J. P. McCreary, P N Vinayachandran , and A. Mukherjee (2017), "Dynamics of Andaman Sea circulation and its role in connecting the equatorial Indian Ocean to the Bay of Bengal " , Journal of Geophysical Research : OceansVolume 122.
    34. DOI: 10.1002/2016JC012300

    35. A. Mukherjee, D. Shankar, A. Chatterjee and P N Vinayachandran (2017),"Numerical simulation of the observed near‐surface East India Coastal Current on the continental shelf", Climate Dynamics.
    36. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-017-3856-x

    37. S. Jahfer, P N Vinayachandran and Ravi S. Nanjundiah (2017) , "Long-term impact of Amazon river runoff on northern hemispheric climate", Nature Sci. Rep.
    38. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-10750-y

    39. A. Kashyap, Sathish S Vadhiyar, Ravi S Nanjundiah and P N Vinayachandran (2017)"Asynchronous and Synchronous Models of Executions R Xeon Phi TM Coprocessor Systems for High on Intel Performance of Long Wave Radiation Calculations in Atmosphere models", Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing
    40. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpdc.2016.12.018

    41. A. Behara and P N Vinayachandran (2016),"An OGCM study of the impact of rain and river water forcing on the Bay of Bengal" Journal of Geephysical Research
    42. DOI: 10.1002/ 2015JC011325

    43. V. Jain, D. Shankar, P N Vinayachandran ,A. Kankonkar , Abhisek Chatterjee , P. Amol, A. M. Almeida , G. S. Michael, Mukherjee , Meenakshi Chatterjee, R. Fernandes , R. Luis, Amol Kamble , A. K. Hegde, Siddhartha Chatterjee, Umasankar Das and C. P. Neema (2016)"Evidence for the existence of Persian Gulf Water and Red Sea Water in the Bay of Bengal", Climate Dynamics
    44. DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0230.1

    45. V. Vijith, P N Vinayachandran V. Thushara, P. Amol, D. Shankar and A. C. Anil, (2016), "Consequences of inhibition of mixed-layer deepening by the West India Coastal Current for winter phytoplankton bloom in the northeastern Arabian Sea" Journal of Geephysical Research
    46. DOI: 10.1002/2016JC012004

    47. Thushara V. and P N Vinayachandran, (2016), "Formation of summer phytoplankton bloom in the northwestern Bay of Bengal in a coupled physical-ecosystem model", Journal of Geephysical ResearchDOI: 10.1002/2016JC011987

    48. P N Vinayachandran, S, Jahfer and R. S. Nanjundiah, (2015), "Impact of river runoff into the ocean on Indian Summer Monsoon", Environmental Research Letters
    49. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/10/5/054008

    50. D. Shankar, R. Remya , P N Vinayachandran, Abhisek Chatterjee and Ambica Behera, (2016) "Inhibition of mixed‐layer deepening during winter in the northeastern Arabian Sea by the West India Coastal Current", Climate Dynamics
    51. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-015-2888-3

    52. Umasankar Das, P N Vinayachandran and Ambica Behara, (2015), "Formation of the southern Bay of Bengal cold pool", Climate Dynamics.
    53. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-015-2947-9

    54. R. Jyothibabu, P N Vinayachandran , N.V.Madhu, R.S. Robin, C. Karnan , L. Jagadeesan and A. Anjusha (2015), "Phytoplankton size structure in the southern Bay of Bengal modified by the Summer Monsoon Current and associated eddies: Implications on the vertical biogenic flux", ,J. Marine Systems ,143 (2015) 98–119.
    55. DOI:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2014.10.018

    56. Thushara V. and P N Vinayachandran ,(2014) "Impact on diurnal forcing on intraseasonal sea surface oscillations in the Bay of Bengal" ,Journal of Geephysical Research, Vol.119
    57. DOI:10.1012/2013JC009746

    58. Md. Nurujjaman, A, Apte and P N Vinayachandran ,(2013) "Data assimilation using Ensember Kalman Filter (ETKF) in ROMS model for Indian Ocean" ,The European Physical Journal Special Topics, Vol.222, 3-4, 875-883.
    59. DOI:10.1140/epjst/e2013-01890-3

    60. P N Vinayachandran D. Shankar, S. Vernekar, K. Sandeep, A. Prakash, C. P. Neema and S. Chatterjee, (2013) "A summer monsoon pump to keep the Bay of Bengal salty" ,Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40.
    61. DOI: 10.1002/grl.50274

    62. Chatterjee A, D. Shankar, P N Vinayachandran and J. P. McCreary, (2013) "Yanai waves in the western equatorial Indian Ocean", Journal of Geephysical Research Oceans, Vol 118.
    63. DOI:10.1002/jgrc.20121

    64. McCreary J. P., Z. Yu, R. R. Hood, P N Vinayachandran ,R. Furue, A. Ishida and K. Richards, (2013) "Dynamics of Indian Ocean oxygen minimum zones", Progress in Oceanography, vol. 112-113, pg 15-37.
    65. DOI:10.1016/j.pocean.2013.03.002

    66. Aparna, S. G., J. P. McCreary, D. Shankar, and P N Vinayachandran (2012) "Signatures of Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño–Southern Oscillation events in sea level variations in the Bay of Bengal" ,Journal of Geephysical Research, Vol. 117.
    67. DOI:10.1029/2012JC008055

    68. Francis, P. A., P N Vinayachandran and S. S. C. Shenoi, (2013) "Indian Ocean Forecast System", Current Science,Vol. 104, NO. 10.
    69. P N Vinayachandran , C. P. Neema, S. Mathew, and R. Remya, (2012) " Mechanisms of summer intraseasonal sea surface temperature oscillations in the Bay of Bengal,", Journal of Geophysical Research Vol. 117.
    70. DOI:10.1029/2011JC007433

    71. Lee S. S. P N Vinayachandran K-J Ha, and J-G Jhun, (2010) "Shift of peak in summer monsoon rainfall over Korea and its association with El Nino-Southern Oscillation", Journal of Geophysical Research ,Vol. 115.
    72. DOI:10.1029/2009JD011717

    73. P N Vinayachandran and R. S. Nanjundiah, (2009)"Indian Ocean sea surface salinity variations in a coupled model, Climate Dynamics",Climate Dynamics.
    74. DOI:10.1007/s00382-008-0511-6

    75. P N Vinayachandran and N. H. Saji, (2008)"Mechanisms of south Indian Ocean intraseasonal cooling", Geophysical Research LettersVol. 35.
    76. DOI:10.1029/2008GL035733

    77. Ha K-J, S-S Lee, P N Vinayachandran and J-G Jhun, (2008)"Changma and shifting peak in summer rainfall of Korea: ENSO influence", Advance Geosciences: Atmospheric Science,Vol. 16, 35-46.
    78. DOI:10.1142/9789812838100_0004

    79. Tangang F. T., L. Juneng, E. Salimun, P N Vinayachandran , Y. K. Seng, C, Reason, S. Behera and T. Yasunari, (2008) ,"n the roles of northeast cold surge, the Borneo vortex, the MJO and the Indian Ocean dipole during the worst 2006/2007 flood in southern Peninsular Malaysia", Geophysical Research Letters.
    80. DOI:10.1029/2008GL033539

    81. Al Safani M., S. S. C. Shenoi, D. Shankar, M. Aparna, J. Kurian, F. Durand and P N Vinayachandran ,(2007), "Westward propagating eddies in the Gulf of Aden", Journal of Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 112
    82. DOI:10.1029/2006JC004020

    83. P N Vinayachandran , J. Kurian and C. P. Neema, (2007),"Indian Ocean response to anomalous conditions during 2006", Geophysical Research Letters, Vol 34.
    84. DOI:10.1029/2007GL030194

    85. P N Vinayachandran and J. Kurian, (2007), "Hydrographic observations and model simulations of the Bay of Bengal freshwater plume,",Deep Sea Research I , Vol 54.
    86. DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr.2007.01.007

    87. P N Vinayachandran , D. Shankar, J. Kurian, F. Durand and S. S. C. Shenoi, (2007),"Arabian Sea mini warm pool and the monsoon onset vortex,", Current Science93(2), 203- 214.
    88. Kurian. J and P N Vinayachandran ,(2007), "Mechanisms of formation of Arabian Sea mini warm pool in a high resolution OGCM", Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.112.
    89. DOI:10.1029/2006JC003631

    90. Francis P. A., S. Gadgil and P N Vinayachandran , (2007),"Triggering of positive dipole by severe cyclones over the Bay of Bengal", Current Science,Vol. 59, 461-475.
    91. Kurian J. and P N Vinayachandran ,(2006), "Formation mechanisms of temperature inversions in the southeastern Arabian Sea", Geophysical Research Letters, Vol.33.
    92. DOI:10.1029/ 2006GL027280

    93. Janakiraman S., R. S. Nanjundiah and P N Vinayachandran ,(2005), "Simulations of the Indian summer monsoon with a coupled ocean-atmosphere model on PARAM Padma",Current Science, 89(9), 1555-1562.
    94. P N Vinayachandran , J. P. McCreary, R. R. Hood and K. Kohler, (2005),"A numerical investigation of the phytoplankton bloom in the Bay of Bengal during northeast monsoon", Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 110.
    95. DOI:10.1029/2005JC002966

    96. P N Vinayachandran T. Kagimoto, Y. Masumoto, P. Chauhan, S. R. Nayak and T. Yamagata,(2005),"Bifurcation of the East India Coastal Current east of Sri Lanka,", Geophysical Research Letters, Vol 32
    97. DOI:10.1029/2005GL022864

    98. Shankar D., S. S. C. Shenoi, R. K. Nayak, P N Vinayachandran , G. Nampoothiri, A. M. Almeida, G. S. Michael, M. R. R. Kumar, D. Sundar and O. P. Sreejith, (2005), "Hydrography of the eastern Arabian Sea during summer monsoon 2002",, Journal of Earth System Science, Vol. 114 (5), 459-474.
    99. DOI:10.1007/BF02702023

    100. Ravichandran M., P N Vinayachandran , S. Joseph and K. Radhakrishnan,(2004), "Results from the first Argo float deployed by India", Current Sci.,Vol. 86(5), 651-659.

    101. P N Vinayachandran ,(2004), " Summer cooling of the Arabian Sea during contrasting monsoons",Geophysical Research Letters Vol 31.
    102. DOI:10.1029/2004GL019961

    103. P N Vinayachandran ,P. Chauhan, M. Mohan and S. Nayak, (2004), "Biological response of the sea around Sri Lanka to summer monsoon",Geophys. Res. Lett. Vol. 31
    104. DOI:10.1029 /2003GL018533

    105. Gadgil S., P N Vinayachandran , P. A. Francis and S. Gadgil, (2004), "Extremes of Indian Monsoon rainfall, ENSO and equatorial Indian Ocean Oscillation,",Geophysical Research Letters, Vol 31.
    106. DOI:10.1029/2004GL019733

    107. P N Vinayachandran and S. Mathew, (2003), "Phytoplankton bloom in the Bay of Bengal during northeast monsoon and its intensification by cyclones,",Geophysical Research Letters Vol. 30 (11).
    108. DOI:10.1029/2002GL016717

    109. Gadgil S., P N Vinayachandran and P. A. Francis, (2003) ,"Droughts of Indian summer monsoon: Role of clouds over the Indian Ocean", Current Sci., Vol. 85, 1713-1719
    110. P N Vinayachandran and T. Yamagata, (2003), " Comment on "Indian Ocean: Validation of the MICOM and ENSO events during 1958-1998 by Haugen et al.",Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 108.
    111. DOI:1029/2002JC001624

    112. P N Vinayachandran , V. S. N. Murty and V. Ramesh Babu, (2002), "Observations of barrier layer formation in the Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon", Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 107 (C12)
    113. DOI:10.1029/2001JC000831

    114. P N Vinayachandran , S. Iizuka and T. Yamagata, (2002), "Indian Ocean dipole mode event in an ocean general circulation model",Deep Sea Res. II. 49, 1573-1596.
    115. DOI:10.1016/S0967-0645(01)00157-6

    116. Shankar D, P N Vinayachandran and A.S. Unnikrishnan, (2002), "The monsoon currents in the north Indian Ocean",Progress in Oceanography ,, Vol. 52 (1), 63-120.
    117. DOI:10.1016/S0079-6611(02)00024-1

    118. Bhat, G. S., S. Gadgil, P. V. Harish Kumar, S. R. Kalsi, P. Madhusoodanan, V. S. N. Murty, C. V. K. Prasada Rao, V. Ramesh Babu, L. V. G Rao, R. R. Rao, M. Ravichandran, K. G. Reddy, P. Sanjeeva Rao, D. Sengupta, D. R. Sikka, J. Swain, and P N Vinayachandran , (2001) "BOBMEX the Bay of Bengal monsoon experiment", Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society Vol. 82 (12), 2217-2243.
    119. DOI:10.1175/1520-0477(2001)082

    120. Saji N. H., B. N. Goswami, P N Vinayachandran and T. Yamagata, (1999) "A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean",Nature , Vol. 401, 360-363.
    121. DOI:10.1038/43854

    122. P N Vinayachandran ,N. H. Saji and T. Yamagata, (1999), "Response of the equatorial Indian Ocean to an unusual wind event during 1994",Geophysical Research Letter 26(11), 1613-1617.
    123. DOI:10.1029/1999GL900179

    124. P N Vinayachandran ,Y. Masumoto, T. Mikawa and T. Yamagata,(1999),"Intrusion of the southwest monsoon current into the Bay of Bengal", Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 104 (C5), 11077-11085.
    125. DOI:10.1029/1999JC900035

    126. P N Vinayachandran and T. Yamagata, (1998) " Monsoon response of the sea around Sri Lanka: Generation of thermal domes and anticyclonic vortices", Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 28,1946-1960.
    127. DOI:10.1175/1520-0485(1998)028

    128. P N Vinayachandran , S. R. Shetye, D. Sengupta and S. Gadgil, (1996) "Forcing mechanisms of the Bay of Bengal circulation", Current Science, Vol. 71, 753-763.
    129. Shetye S. R., A. D. Gouveia, D. Shankar, S. S. C. Shenoi, P N Vinayachandran , D. Sundar, G. S. Michael and G. Nampoothiri, (1996), "Hydrography and circulation in the western Bay of Bengal during the northeast monsoon", Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 101 (C6), 14011-14025.
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    Editorial Board

    Courses Taught

    On-going projects

    1. BOBBLE: Bay of Bengal Boundary Layer Experiment, a Joint Project between MoES India and MoES, UK, 2015-2020.
    2. J C Bose Fellowship and Research Grant, (Prinicipal Investigator), 2018-2022.
    3. Development and implementation of river discharge and biogeochemical module for the global climate model setup of INCOIS, (Prinicipal Investigator) 2018-2020.
    4. Intel Parallel Computing Centre for Modeling Monsoons and Tropical Climate", Intel Corporation, USA, (Co-investigator), 2014-2020.

    Completed Projects

    1. As Principal Investigator
      1. Modeling physical-biological interaction in the Indian Ocean, INCOIS, Ministry of Earth Sciences, 2013-2017.
      2. High resolution modeling of Indian Ocean using MOM and ROMS, INCOIS, Ministry of Earth Sciences, 2008-2013
      3. Oceanographic observations in the southern Bay of Bengal during CTCZ, Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India, 2009-2012.
      4. Development of a data assimilation system for the Indian Ocean, DOD (INCOIS), 2003-2008.
      5. Analysis and synthesis for the Indian Argo Programme, DOD (INCOIS), 2002-2005.
      6. Underwater radiation and chlorophyll measurements during CTCZ (2011-2012), 2011-2016.
      7. Retrieval of Ocean parameters (phytoplankton blooms), ISRO (SAC), 2004-2008.
      8. Interpretation of Ocean Color variability in the Bay of Bengal using an ocean general circulation model, ISRO (SAC), 2001-2003.
      9. Implementation of Regional Ocean Modeling System for the Indian Ocean on a Windows compute cluster, Microsoft Corporation, USA, 2008-2011.
    2. As co-investigator
      1. Common computing facility for ocean modeling at CAOS, Department of Ocean Development (INCOIS), 2003-2008, Co-investigator. (PI: Chairman, CAOS).
      2. Study of teleconnections and Ocean-Atmosphere coupling over Indian Region using AOGCM? INCOIS, Ministry of Earth Sciences, 2013-2017, (Co-investigator).
      3. Modeling Oxygen Minimum in the Arabian Sea, National Science Foundation (NSF), USA, 2007-2010, Co-investigator. (PI: Prof. Jay McCreary, IPRC, Hawaii).
      4. Study of Atmosphere-Ocean Interaction and its impact on ocean state over northern Indian using a coupled climate system model, Ministry of Earth Sciences, INCOIS, MoES, 2008-2013, Co-investigator. (PI: Prof. Ravi Nanjundiah, IISc).
      5. Assimilation of Argo data into the ROMS model of the Indian Ocean, Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, MoES, 2008-2011, Co-investigator (PI: Prof. Amit Apte, TIFR).
      6. The Indian monsoon & the coupled atmosphere - Equatorial Indian Ocean system, INCOIS, MoES, 2007-2010, Co-investigator. (PI: Prof. Sulochana Gadgil, IISc).
      7. Constraining the tsunami cyclicity along the southeast coast of India based on near-source (Andamans) * far-field (east coast of India) investigations, 2008-2012, Co-investigator.
      8. Implementation of dynamical seasonal prediction system, India Meteorological Department, 2006-2009, Co-investigator. (PI: Prof. Ravi Nanjundiah, IISc).
      9. Reconstruction of late quaternary tropical sea surface temperature-salinity, 2005-2006, Co-investigator.